In developing countries infectious disease are still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in children.1,2 This is contrary to the developed countries where injuries are the leading cause of death and disabilities.3,4
Despite the advances in the antimicrobial treatment and development of vaccines, it is ironical that infectious diseases still account for over two third of childhood mortality in developing countries.5 Unfortunately Pakistan is eighth among the countries, which bears 95% of the burden of infectious diseases. The main cause of death in over 70% children are infectious diseases.
A cursory glance at the leading causes of deaths in children revealed a startling figure. Large majority of children never reach their fifth birthday. In Pakistan under five year, under one year and under one month mortality is 97, 78 and 57 per 1,000 live births respectively6 Nearly two million children less than five years of age die of pneumonia. Similar number die of diarrhoea every year. Together both diseases account for 22% of all childhood death in Pakistan
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